by Lawrence Wilson, MD

© March 2013, The Center For Development

Hair tissue mineral analysis or HTMA is a soft tissue mineral biopsy that uses hair as the sampling tissue. A biopsy is an analysis of a body tissue. Hair is considered a soft tissue, and hence hair analysis is a soft tissue biopsy.
The test measures the levels of 20 or more minerals in the hair with an accuracy of plus or minus about 3%. This is about the same level of accuracy as most blood tests, or a little better. For accuracy of the water-soluble elements, the hair sample must not be washed at the hair testing laboratory. The preparation of the hair sample at the laboratory is a debate that exists among the laboratories that offer hair mineral testing. Most laboratories, unfortunately, wash the hair with powerful detergents and toxic solvents such as acetone or alcohol.
As an aside, hair is extremely useful for testing many things besides minerals. These include drugs, toxic chemicals and DNA. These, however, are not the focus of this article. At times I have heard people say that hair is not helpful for testing the body, when in fact the very opposite is the truth. Hair is frequently used in forensic medicine, and in drug testing clin-ics. It is also used worldwide for biological monitoring of many animal spe-cies for toxic metals.


A complete answer to this question could fill several volumes. Minerals are sometimes called the 'sparkplugs' of the body. They are needed for mil-lions of enzymes as co-factors, facilitators, inhibitors and as part of the en-zymes themselves. As a result, they have a great deal to do with the health of our bodies. By analyzing mineral imbalances in the body, one can learn a lot about the causes and correction of hundreds of common physical and mental health conditions.
A specific class of minerals, the toxic metals, are also extremely important today due to a nutritionally depleted food supply and the presence of environmental toxicity almost everywhere on planet earth. Studying toxic metals is thus very important today to monitor their spread and learn about their many damaging effects upon the bodies of human beings, animals, plants and other organisms.
Even more can be learned about human and animal health by studying the ratios of the major minerals in the body. This is a more complex area, but a very important and fruitful one. Finally, by studying more complex patterns of minerals in the body, one can learn even more about human health and disease.


Hair makes an excellent biopsy material for many reasons:

Sampling is simple and non-invasive.
Hair is a stable biopsy material that remains viable for years, if needed, and requires no special handling.
Mineral levels in the hair are about ten times that of blood, making them easy to detect and measure accurately in the hair.
Hair is a fairly rapidly growing tissue.
The body often throws off toxic substances in the hair, since the hair will be cut off and lost to the body.
Mineral levels are kept relatively constant in the blood even when pa-thology is present. Hair mineral values often vary by a factor of ten or much more, making measurement easier and providing a tremendous amount of accurate knowledge about the cells and the soft tissue of our bodies.
Toxic metals are easier to detect in the hair than in the blood. They are not found in high concentrations in the blood except right after an acute exposure. However, most tend to accumulate in the soft tissues such as the hair, as the body tries to move them to locations where they will do less damage.
Hair testing provides a long-term reading, while blood tests and urine tests provide a more instantaneous reading of the body. Both types of readings have value in some circumstances. For example, blood tests can vary from hour to hour, depending upon one's diet, activities, the time of day and many other factors. This is beneficial in some instances, but is often less helpful when seeking an overall metabolic reading. The mineral content of the blood is also kept fairly constant. These problems are not present with hair testing. At times, of course, an instantaneous reading such as the blood provides is needed, especially in emergencies, which is an area in which hair testing is not used. however, for nutritional balancing, blood testing simply will not work for the reasons given above.
Hair is a non-essential, excretory, storage, soft tissue of the body. This causes the body to deposit dangerous toxic metals here more than in most other tissues of the body. It also means that the readings obtained from hair will be different than, for example, a DMPS challenge test, and often more accurate to measure what is in the body.
Finally, advancements in computer-controlled mass spectroscopy and other technologies have rendered the hair mineral biopsy an extremely cost-effective, accurate and reliable test when it is performed well.


HTMA provides a measure of the chemical elements deposited in the cells and between the cells of the hair. It provides a reading of the deposi-tion of the mineral in the hair during the 3-4 months during which the hair grew. It does not measure the total body load of any mineral, as some claim.
At least 20 elements are measured, depending on the laboratory. The three classes of these elements are:

Macrominerals include calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium and phosphorus. Some labs also read sulfur.
Trace Minerals include iron, zinc, copper, manganese, selenium, chromium, and some labs measure others.
Toxic Minerals include lead, mercury, cadmium, arsenic, aluminum, and nickel. Some labs read others as well.


Doctors tend to use the hair mineral test in one of four basic ways:

Most mainstream doctors and others do not use hair testing at all. They have been influenced by several widely-publicized, but seriously flawed studies that were designed to discredit hair mineral testing. These are discussed below.
Among the doctors and nutritionists who use mineral testing, many only use it for the detection of high levels of toxic metals.
A smaller number of doctors also use the test to detect low levels of nutrient minerals. Then, most of them do replacement therapy. This means that they suggest foods or food supplements to raise the levels of the trace minerals that are low, or lower the ones that are high. This works poorly, if at all, in my experience. Dr. Eck, my mentor, firmly rejected this use of hair mineral testing.
A number of physicians follow the recommendations of Dr. David Watts and/or Bill Wolcott. However, I do not recommend their laboratories, their interpretations or their products. In my experience, they are not nearly as good as the work of Dr. Paul Eck. Dr. Watts worked for Dr. Eck, but has altered Dr. Eck's method so that it is hardly recognizable.
A small number of physicians and nutritionists follow the recommen-dations of Analytical Research Labs, which was founded by Dr. Eck. This is better, but the computer has not been updated sufficiently, in my view, since Dr. Eck's death about 16 years ago.
This website offers the latest research on nutritional balancing along the lines of Dr. Eck's brilliant work. Articles describe the newer insights and newer program modifications, and every attempt is made to keep them up to date with our research. Practitioners listed on this website are the only ones I can recommend who offer the programs in the updated form.
The remainder of this article is concerned with the use of the hair mineral analysis according to the system of interpretation devised by Dr. Paul Eck.


Analyzing hair tissue for chemical elements is quite different from testing blood, urine or feces, although all have great value in the right situation. Hair mineral analysis can reveal the following:
The metabolic type. This is an important fact of body chemistry. It is most helpful to understand dozens of symptoms, and to guide the dietary and supplement recommendations. It also helps to understand many emotional and mental symptoms as well.
The energy and vitality level. Energy is a common denominator of health. This means that if one's energy is low, hundreds of symptoms can occur. Restoring one's biochemical or adaptive energy is a key to healing. This is one of the most basic healing principles. Hair analysis is fabulous to evaluate the reasons for lowered energy and vitality, and guiding exactly how to increase real energy production rather than just stimulate energy, as most healing program do.
Gland and organ insights. Hair testing provides indirect and direct indicators for the cellular effect of the thyroid and adrenal hormones, and at times the ovarian hormones as well. It can also be used indirectly to assess the activity of the liver, kidneys, stomach, intestines and perhaps other organs as well.
Assessing carbohydrate tolerance. Hair analysis can be used to quickly screen for hypoglycemia and, at times, diabetes, although a glucose tolerance test (GTT) should be done if one suspects diabetes. Hair testing can, however, usually guide a practitioner to correct Type 2 diabetes and some Type 1 diabetes without the need for most drugs. Mineral imbalances and chronic infections are often involved with these conditions.
Toxic metal assessment. No method of testing can detect all the toxic metals in the body. Hair analysis is sometimes helpful, however, to assess the levels of the major toxic metals in the body. Other mineral levels and patterns on the test provide indicators of the presence of hidden toxic metals, an important subject that is beyond the scope of this article.
Reducing guesswork in recommending diets, nutritional sup-plementation and detoxification methods. Many physicians are becoming aware of natural healing methods, but apply them in a haphazard manner that can make matters much worse.
Trends or tendencies for over 60 common health conditions. This is a great benefit because it enables a practitioner to predict health problems that may arise in the future, and thus help prevent their occur-rence. This is much less costly and more effective than waiting until a dis-ease such as cancer or heart disease occurs.
This fact about hair mineral testing alone would save billions of dollars if it were used widely. It is a wise and easy way to screen for tendencies for diabetes, heart disease, chronic fatigue, cancer and many other serious conditions.

Monitoring Progress. Hair analysis can help monitor a person's healing progress. Symptom changes alone are often not a good way to know if a person is progressing on a healing program. However, the hair test will often detect subtle changes in body chemistry, which is another wonderful benefit of this test.
Stress patterns. A properly performed hair mineral analysis is su-perb to assess the stage of stress and some 20 to 30 stress response pat-terns of the human body. This type of analysis and interpretation is based on the stress theory of disease, first put forth by Hans Selye, MD some 60 years ago and still not well accepted by the medical profession. However, it is most useful to help reverse many types of pathology that do not respond well to other methods of care, either traditional medical care or holistic health care.
Autonomic nervous system assessment. A properly performed hair mineral test can assess many aspects of the functioning of the auto-nomic nervous system. This is critical imbalance today in thousands of people and leads to hundreds of symptoms from digestive disturbance and inability to eliminate toxic metals, to sleep disturbances, blood sugar prob-lems and even cancers.
Psychological/emotional illness assessment. Among the most interesting use of the hair mineral analysis is the assessment of causes for mental and emotional symptoms such as depression, anxiety, panic attacks, ADD, ADHD, autism, schizophrenia, dementia, violence, bipolar disorder and several others. This is a fascinating area in which hair analysis has a treat contribution to make to medical and psychiatric science.
Other. Much more is possible with a hair mineral test. One of the most amazing is called movement patterns. These have to do with a per-son's lifestyle and current activities, in relation to the person's life path or progress through life. This can be extremely helpful in counseling a person, and to understand illness, both physical and emotional.
Much deeper insights into diseases, biochemistry, physiology, psychology, and possibly more esoteric sciences such as pleomorphism, biological transmutation of the elements and others, are also possible using this test.


The mineral values are usually reported in three ways:
1. Milligrams per 100 grams, often written as mg%.
2. Micrograms per gram or ug/g. This gives numbers that are 10 times higher than milligrams per hundred grams or mg%. To convert the reading to mg%, simply move the decimal point one space to the left. For example, if calcium is reported as 1210 ug/g, it is the same as 121 mg%
3. Parts per million or ppm. This is another reporting method. The actual readings are the same as when they are reported in ug/g.


The minerals listed above are the most important chemical elements used in the body. They are locked into the hair as it grows. One can as-sess:
Levels of all the 20-40 or more minerals.
Ratios between the minerals, of which there are four major ones and some 50-100 minor ones. This adds significant complexity and a great deal more information.
Simple patterns consisting of combinations of the levels and/or ra-tios. I use some 20-25 of these, but there are probably more.
Complex patterns consisting of combinations of simple patterns and various levels and ratios. I use about 10 of these, and more are being dis-covered almost weekly. They become very complex, at times.
Changes over time of all these, and the rate of change in all parameters. This part of interpreting the test requires retests and comparisons between tests over time when a person has followed a nutritional balancing program.
Physical or biochemical interpretation of all the above.
Psychological or personality interpretation of the above.
The way the body is responding to stress in its environment.
How much energy the body is generating.
Deep progress in healing.
Other levels of interpretation. Just a few of these include trauma effects and movement patterns.
The test is also useful to monitor overall health and changes in health status, no matter what therapy is being employed by the practition-er. The reason for this is that hair mineral analysis is not a therapeutic in-tervention, but simply a way to monitor the body at a very deep cellular level.


Mineral analysis by mass spectroscopy-ICP and related methods is a standard testing procedure used in laboratories and universities throughout the world. Hair mineral testing on human and animal populations has been carried out for over 80 years.
Well over two million analyses have been performed. Several thou-sand papers and other research have been published on this method of bio-logical monitoring.
Regarding toxic metals, the United States Environmental Protection Agency published a 300-page study in August 1979. They reviewed over 400 journal articles about hair mineral testing. The authors concluded that hair is a "meaningful and representative tissue for biological monitoring for most of the toxic metals".
Sadly, very few physicians are trained in hair tissue mineral analysis interpretation. I am medically trained, and was also very skeptical about its use. However, research and clinical experience with over 50,000 patients have dispelled any doubts as to its efficacy and significance for health care.


Several studies critical of hair analysis have been published. Most criticism stems from two studies published in the Journal of the American Medical Association. The first was published in August 1985, 254(8)1041-1045.
In this study, standard hair analysis protocol was ignored in three ways, any one of which would be enough to discredit the entire study:
1. A few long pieces of his daughter's hair were used. This is not the correct way to do the test. One must use small one-inch samples cut close to the scalp. The ends of long hair are more subject to contamination and should never be used.
2. Samples were washed under the kitchen tap before being sent to the laboratory. This is also a violation of standard hair sampling protocol. Tap water is often rich in minerals. Hair samples should never be washed in this manner.
3. Hair samples were mixed together by hand. Here is another viola-tion of standard protocol. It is difficult or impossible to obtain a homogen-ous sample this way because hair tends to stick together. Hair should have been powdered first and then mixed together, or at least cut into tiny parts before mixing.

Other flaws in this study were:
The author had a clear conflict of interest. He was, and may still be, the director of Quackwatch, a medical industry-funded group that specializes in deriding natural, alternative, complementary and holistic methods of healing. In fact, the author of the study, I am told, operates over 30 website that he uses to denigrate holistic healing methods under various titles and pseudonyms.
Referencing for the study was almost nonexistent. For exam-ple, the author completely ignored over 400 studies that had been done on hair analysis and reported upon by the United States Envi-ronmental Protection Agency only 6 years before. Obviously, the au-thor was either extremely ignorant about hair analysis research or did not care what the medical community really knew about it.
The author admitted in the study that he had no professional experience with hair analysis whatsoever. One must wonder why he was picked to author this study.


Another study appeared in JAMA, #285, #1, Jan.3, 2001 that claimed to "revisit" the earlier one. Six hair samples were cut from one person and sent to six laboratories for analysis. Flaws in this study include:
1. An illegally operating, unlicensed mineral testing laboratory was included in the study. This lab reported the worst results, and was the basis for the authors conclusion that hair mineral analysis is unreliable. This is so bizarre it is once again difficult to fathom. Would JAMA publish a study of brain surgery procedures and use an illegally-operating hospital or a bogus surgeon? I doubt it.
Plenty of other hair testing labs could have been used, but the authors somehow found one that had lost its license. This makes little sense, unless one wishes to discredit the field of hair analysis.
2. The "study" involved only one patient. I learned in medical school that a report involving only one or two people is "anecdotal", and not a valid study. It is shocking that the Journal of the American Medical Association would accept such a report and print it. It is also a poor reflection on the authors that they would draw any conclusions at all from this anecdotal "study".
3. Rather than compare the raw data, the authors compared wheth-er readings were reported as high, normal or low. This is not a measure of the reliability of hair analysis, as they claim. This is comparing the reference ranges of various laboratories, which is another issue altogether.
4. The authors demonstrated clear bias and ignorance of hair analy-sis. They referred to the 1985 JAMA study, stating, "we decided to update Barrett's results". This implies they were unaware or unconcerned with all the flaws in the earlier study.
5. Very poor referencing again. Very few studies of hair analysis were mentioned, and once again, the authors ignored hundreds of favorable stu-dies of hair analysis.
6. Ignoring their own findings. In this anecdotal report, the two labora-tories that do not wash the hair at the lab, ARL and TEI, provided identical results in 6 of 9 trace minerals and extremely close results on the other three. In other words, in the only valid comparison of hair analysis laboratories, results indicated the exact opposite conclusion than that drawn by the authors. This fact was completely overlooked and not reported by the authors in their discussion or conclusion. Essentially, the anecdotal report indicated that when the hair is not washed at the lab, the results are astoundingly reliable and accurate, but this fact was ignored and the authors conclusion was the exact opposite of this truth.


A 'Nightline' television show discussed hair analysis in a widely watched program. In this "expose", hair from a dog was sent to a commercial hair analysis laboratory. The perpetrators of this scam from 'Nightline' led the laboratory to believe it was a human hair sample. They did not tell the laboratory it was from a dog. Identifying the species from which hair is sampled is the standard and an obvious procedure.
When results came back, they were very odd because the normal mineral values for a dog are very different than for humans. The television host claimed that this was a healthy dog and that such odd results proved that hair analysis is a fraud.
Of course, if one sent a dog's blood to a blood laboratory and did not tell the laboratory it belonged to a dog, the exact same thing would happen. This, of course, was not pointed out in the Nightline piece.


Another shameful government pronouncement on hair testing took place in 2001 at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. A panel was as-sembled to evaluate "the state of the art of hair analysis". It involved seven "experts" in toxicology and other fields and 50 public observers. The experts reviewed 7 studies of hair analysis to prepare for the meeting. In addition, another 25 studies were cited during or after the meeting. Based on this "review", the panel concluded that hair analysis is not effec-tive or reliable as a method of biological monitoring for toxic metals, with the exception of methyl mercury. Flaws in this report include:
Extreme lack of references. A review of only 32 studies of hair analysis should have disqualified this panel right away. In addition, of the 32 papers, one was a CDC paper on toxic chemicals, one was a report on the anatomy and physiology of hair, and one was an article about controlling hair growth. Another concerned Napoleon Bonaparte's exposure to arsenic in 1816, while another was about regeneration and rate of hair growth in men. One was also the 1989 recommended dietary allowances. Totally ignored were literally hundreds of studies, many of which are in the reference section of this text.
Overlooking their own research. There was no mention or citation of the government's own 300-page review of over 400 studies of hair analysis conducted in August of 1979. This was a real review that could have been updated by the CDC, had they cared to do so. The earlier review concluded that hair testing was "meaningful and representative for biological monitoring for the major toxic metals".
Unqualified experts. The 7-member panel of 'hair mineral analysis experts' included 1) a professor of emergency medicine, 2) the president of an internal medicine consulting service, and 3) an employee in the Department of Health Education and Promotion at the ATSDR. Also among the experts was Dr. Seidel, one of the authors of the second JAMA study described above. This might be seen as obvious bias, since she was the lead author on a very negative study of hair analysis. The reference for this panel discussion is


Accurate results depend on cutting hair samples correctly. Here are basic rules for sampling the hair.
1. Cut the sample from anywhere on the head. The nape of the neck is excellent but other areas are fine as well. Hair can be cut from other parts of the body, although these are not as accurate in most cases.
2. Cut the hair as close to the scalp as possible for the most recent and therefore the most accurate readings.
3. Then measure about one inch or two centimeters from where it was cut on the head. Cut off the rest of the long hair and throw it away. Using even shorter hair is excellent. The only problem is with long hair.
4. The best way is usually to cut several little samples and combine them until the paper scale tips or until you have filled a small spoon or have 125 mg of hair. (This is not a lot of hair.)
5. Hair that has been tinted, dyed, highlighted, bleached or permanent-treated may be used. If it has been bleached or permed, please wash the hair several times after the hair treatments before cutting the sample to remove the chemicals and allow the hair to grow out a little.
6.Thinning shears or even a razor may be used if the hair is short. It must be an electric razor, as we do not want the hair mixed with shaving cream or soap. If thinning shears are used on long hair, it may be hard to tell which end was cut.
7. Use a clean paper (not plastic) envelope to collect the hair. Plastic is okay, but the hair tends to stick to it and is harder to remove easily.
8. The sample must be sent to a licensed clinical laboratory for analy-sis. The best labs are Analytical Research Labs in Phoenix, Arizona (my first choice) or Trace Elements, Inc. (a very poor second choice because they read more minerals, but results may not be as accurate and worse, their corrective programs are terrible).
Do not use a lab that washes the hair, which includes all the other la-boratories in the world, as far as I know. These labs may be okay to measure toxic metals. However, they are not good at all to get accurate readings of sodium and potassium, which is required for nutritional balancing science.


The procedure described here is used at Analytical Research Laboratories in Phoenix, Arizona. Similar, but at times less rigorous procedures may be used at other hair testing laboratories.
1. Hair samples arriving at the laboratory are first cut into small pieces with surgical scissors.
2. A precisely weighed amount of hair is digested overnight in nitric and perchloric acid.
3.The following day the sample is rehydrated and placed in the mea-suring instrument to be assessed for minerals.
The most common measuring instrument today is an ICP-mass spec-trometer. This is a highly sophisticated hybrid, computer-controlled ma-chine costing several hundred thousand dollars. It is not a "home or office unit". Any doctor who runs this test in his office is not using the same equipment and results may not be as accurate.
Essentially, the dissolved sample is burned at a high temperature. Each mineral gives off a characteristic spectrum or frequencies of light, which is picked up by sensitive detectors in the measuring instrument. Calibration and precise control of the flame temperature are essential to obtain accurate readings.
Licensing. In America, hair mineral analysis laboratories are in-spected annually by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers For Medicare and Medicaid Services, Division of Health Standards and Quality. An operating license is issued only if personnel and procedures meet rigorous standards.
Quality Control. Analytical Research Labs runs control samples and blank samples at the beginning, middle and end of every batch. Also, small amount of hair is set aside and any readings that are far out of range are retested automatically at no extra charge. This is not done at most laboratories.
Hair tissue mineral analysis is not something that can be done in an office or at home. If someone offers a test that is done at the office, it is not the same test. Only about eight or nine laboratories offer commercial hair tissue mineral analysis in America and a few exist overseas. All other laboratories send hair samples to one of the few labs that have the correct equipment and licensing to perform the test.


The danger of environmental contamination has prompted many mineral testing laboratories to wash the hair before analyzing it. However, studies indicate this is far worse than the occasional contamination due to an environmental agent. These include the following studies:
Leroy, R. (J Ortho Med., 1986;1(2)).
Seidel, et al. (JAMA, 2001, 285, #1). The authors compared hair test results from about six labs. The results of the two laboratories that do not wash the hair samples showed excellent correlation, unlike some of the others. One must obtain the actual test numbers to realize this, as it is not mentioned in the study.
Assarian, GS and Oberleas, D., (Clin Chem., 1977;23(9):1771-1772).
These studies showed that washing the hair at the laboratory erratically and unpredictably removes calcium, sodium and potassium. Zinc, magnesium, nickel and most other elements are also affected by washing. Thus, we recommend only using a laboratory that does not wash the hair at the laboratory.
Those who favor washing the hair at the lab contend that any mineral that is washed out is 'exogenous' - not really part of the hair. Judging by the excellent predictability the mineral ratios provide when the hair is not washed, one is lead to conclude that the loosely bound minerals are not simply exogenous. They are part of the biopsy material.
This is why I only recommend Analytical Research Labs for hair mineral testing. While Trace elements, Inc. does not wash the hair, they are not as careful in their lab technique, in my experience, and their nutrition programs are not nearly as good.


Some say that hair samples are inaccurate due to hair treatments and environmental contamination. However, our experience indicates that shampoo, conditioners, rinses, hair dyes, tints, light sweating and air pollu-tion generally do not significantly affect hair readings.
Most people wash their hair frequently. Most hair products do not contain many minerals that remain in the hair after the product is used. Therefore the test is not affected. Hair is not very porous, about 10% in men and 15% in women. Most contaminants do not remain within the hair.
However, swimming in pools can raise sodium and copper levels. Heavy sweating immediately before cutting the sample can raise sodium and potassium readings. 'Grecian Formula' and 'Youth Hair' hair dye contain lead. They will elevate the lead level (and should be avoided!).
Head & Shoulders shampoo can elevate the zinc level. Selsun Blue shampoo can elevate the selenium level. These contaminants are usually easy to identify on a hair test because the readings are heavily skewed. Asking the patient what products are on their hair will usually be sufficient to rule out abnormal readings due to hair products.
Showering may wash out a small percentage of water-soluble miner-als. However, minerals from the sweat or oil glands appear to re-establish an equilibrium on the hair within a half-hour after washing. Of course, this re-equilibration cannot occur if the hair is washed after it is cut from the head at a laboratory.
Bleach or other harsh chemicals used in permanents will have some effect on hair readings. If possible, take a hair sample before having a permanent or bleaching. After a beauty parlor permanent or bleaching treatment, it is best to let the hair grow out for several weeks.
Second best is to wash the hair 4-5 times after these treatments be-fore having a hair analysis. However, if a person is very ill, a sample can be taken at any time. It may not be perfectly accurate, but will provide enough information to begin a corrective program.


Some authors criticize hair mineral testing when it is used to recom-mend nutritional supplements or even foods for improving one's health. In particular, vitamins may seem difficult to recommend because the test only detects mineral levels. Let me explain how this is done, however, with a simple example.
It is known that certain vitamins, such as vitamin C, can be used to help remove toxic metals. Thus a practitioner may recommend supplementary vitamin C if a hair analysis reveals excessive toxic metals. There are many other ways the test can be used to recommend herbs, vitamins and other nutritional products.

CURRENT IDEAL HAIR MINERAL VALUES I USE (hair must not be washed at the laboratory for accurate readings)

calcium = 40 mg%, magnesium = 6 mg, sodium = 25 mg%, potassium = 10 mg%, phosphorus = 16-17 mg, sulfur = 4500 mg%.
NOTES: sulfur usually is a little higher in fast oxidizers, up to about 5000 mg%.
Trace Minerals:
zinc = 15 mg%, iron = 2 mg%, copper = 2.5 mg%, manganese = 0.03-0.04 mg%, chromium = 0.06 mg%, selenium = 0.12 mg%, cobalt = 0.002 mg%, lithium = 0.002, molybdenum = 0.002, boron = 0.05-0.08 mg%, ru-bidium = 0.06, germanium = 0.003, iodine = 0.1 mg%, vanadium = 0.004 mg%, zirconium = 0.005 mg%
NOTES: Everyone seems to need some zinc, manganese, chromium, sele-nium and a little of the others found in products such as Nature's Way or Solaray kelp and in sea salt, but not that found in other sea vegetables, and not in fish and other foods or other "mineral supplements".
Ideal Levels Of The Toxic Minerals:
Most important toxic metals:
lead = 0.06-0.09 mg%, mercury = 0.03-0.04 mg%, cadmium = 0.005-0.007 mg%, arsenic = 0.005-0.008, aluminum = 0.65-1.0 mg%, nickel = 0.02-0.04 mg%
Other toxic metals (that are much less well researched):
Uranium = 0.002-0.004 mg%, strontium = .008-0.01 mg%, antimony = 0.005-0.01 mg%, barium = 0.03-0.05 mg%, beryllium = 0.001-0.002 mg%, bismuth = 0.05-0.1 mg%, silver = 0.08-0.1 mg%, tin = 0.02-0.04 mg%, titanium = 0.05-0.07 mg%, platinum = 0.008-0.01 mg%, thallium = 0.004-0.006 mg%, thorium = 0.004-0.006 mg%.
1. All these values are still being researched.
2. Levels below the ideals listed above generally indicate a poor eliminator of this metal. This is an important concept for hair analysis interpretation.
3. Most people have too much of most of the toxic metals, even if they are not revealed on the test. They can be hidden, sequestered deep within the body tissues. This is especially true of mercury and aluminum, due to environmental contamination.


Hair tissue mineral analysis has been available for about the past 80 years or so. It is widely used in biological monitoring of animal species throughout the world and is being used more and more for human metabolic assessment as well. When understood properly, it offers great potential to improve human and animal health at the deepest levels. It can also be used preventively and for prediction of illness.
A short list of books about minerals and hair mineral testing
Albrecht, W.A, The Albrecht Papers, Acres U.S.A., 1975.
Andersen, B.D.,The Rhythms of Nature, 1999.
Atkins, R.C., The Atkins Health Revolution, Houghton Mifflin Co., 1988.
Bernard, C., An Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine, Collier Books, 1961.
Bland, J., Hair Tissue Mineral Analysis, An Emergent Diagnostic Technique, Thorsons Publishing, 1984
Braunwald, E. Eet al, ed., Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 15th edition, McGraw-Hill, 2001
Brown, A.C. and Crounse, R.G., Hair, Trace Elements, and Human Illness, Praeger Publishers, 1980.
Casdorph, H.R. and Walker, M., Toxic Metal Syndrome, Avery Publishing, 1995.
Chatsworth, L. and Chatsworth, C., Energy, Healthview Publishing, 1985.
Chatt, A., Katz, S.S., Hair Analysis: Applications in the Biomedical and Envi-ronmental Sciences, VCH Publishing, 1989.
Cleave, T.L, The Saccharine Disease, Keats Publishing, 1975.
Crook, W.G., The Yeast Connection Handbook, Professional Books, 1999.
Davies, I.J.T., The Clinical Significance of the Essential Biological Metals, C.C. Thomas, 1972.
Douglass, W.C., The Milk of Human Kindness is Not Pasteurized, Copple House Books, 1985.
Douglass, W.C., Into the Light, Second Opinion Publishing, 1993.
Droesti, I. and Smith, R., Neurobiology of the Trace Elements, Volumes I and II, Humana Press, 1983.
Eck, P.C. and Wilson, L., Toxic Metals in Human Health and Disease, Eck Institute of Applied Nutrition and Bioenergetics, Ltd.,1989.
Eck, P.C., Healthview Newsletter, Interview #27-29, Healthview, 1981.
Eck, P.C., and Watts, D., The Most Commonly Asked Questions About Hair Analysis, Eck Institute of Applied Nutrition and Bioenergetics, Ltd., 1983.
Eck, P., Watts, D., Wilson, L. et al., Healthscope Newsletter, Issues 1-22, The Eck Institute of Applied Nutrition and Bioenergetics, Ltd., 1982-1985.
Frompovich, C.J., Understanding Body Chemistry and Hair Mineral Analysis, C.J. Frompovich, 1982.
Gerson, M., A Cancer Therapy - Results of 50 Cases, 3rd edition, Totality Books, 1977.
Gittleman, A.L., Why Am I Always So Tired, Harper San Francisco, 1999.
Goyer, R.A. et al, Medical Toxicology, Academic Press, 1995.
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All information in this article is for educational purposes only. It is not for the diagnosis, treatment, prescription or cure of any disease or health condition.